The Exodus Case – Pharaoh’s Army

“The Exodus Case” by Dr. Lennart Moller – Book Review, Part Six of Seven

“28 Then the waters returned and covered the chariots, the horsemen, and all the army of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them. Not so much as one of them remained… 30 So the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore.” Exodus 14, selected verses.

I had heard that evidence of chariot wheels had been found on a land bridge in the Middle East, possibly being the remains of Pharaoh’s army from Exodus. Not wanting to go off half-cocked, I did an internet search. That search is how I found Dr. Lennart Moller and his book, The Exodus Case.

He has not disappointed with his thorough, scientific method. For what it’s worth, I have two college degrees and I know a little about scholarly research and writing. Dr. Moller reads to me like the real deal, and he has a very serious pedigree as a scientist. See the first part of this series, “The Exodus Case – Part One.”

First, coral doesn’t just start growing. It must attach to something. That’s why people clean large ships out and sink them to start a reef growing. Coral reefs don’t start out of nowhere; they need something to attach to. Hence the ships. In the Gulf of Aqaba, Dr. Moller notes that it has coral reefs like most other bodies of water. But there is one area where there is coral, and it has not formed into a reef. He makes the observation that, on the land bridge off the Nuweiba Peninsula, coral is scattered about like someone tossed out a bunch of garbage. It lies here and there with no discernable pattern. A closer examination reveals what may have happened.

From Dr. Moller: “If skeletal parts lie open and accessible…then corals settle and begin to grow. This can make it very difficult to identify…skeletal parts. There is a large quantity of possible…parts at the place of the crossing, but they are piled up together…which makes the precise identification of individual…parts almost impossible. But there are also several examples of skeletal parts which can be identified.”

On page 248 he has pictures of a piece of coral shaped like a human femur lying next to an actual femur. They are identical. He has other pictures where he can discern human skulls, ribs, spines, and more. One picture on page 251 happens to have captured a fish next to “coral-ized” skeletons to provide scale (no pun intended). He estimates these remains to show no less than 3 individuals (remember, he’s an MD). There are many such identifiable corals on the land bridge. And that isn’t all.

There are identifiable skeletal parts of cows or oxen, which Pharaoh’s army would have used to both transport and be food. There are also parts that can be identified as pieces of horse skeletons.

So we have coral that has apparently grown over parts of skeletons and taken on their shape, which allows them to be identified. We have beasts of burden, which an army would require to supply and feed themselves. We have the horses to pull Pharaoh’s chariots. Oh, yeah! That reminds me.

He found coral in the shapes of chariot wheels. How does he decide that they are shaped as such? Well, on several, not all, but on enough coral shapes you can actually count the spokes. Because technology does improve over time and designs change, Dr. Moller can trace those wheels back to Egyptian chariot wheel designs. There are a variety; 4, 6, and 8 spokes. Why the diversity in one army? Because they wouldn’t just trash a perfectly good chariot because of the new number of spokes. Plus, they would take the chariots of those they defeated in war, adding them to the Egyptian “fleet.” These assertions are evident in Egyptian ruins.

Dr. Moller’s extensive research on chariot wheel design shows that the designs found on the land bridge off the Nuweiba Peninsula match the designs in use by Egypt and its conquests at the time of the Exodus.

One can also make out shapes resembling axles, hub caps (yes, Egyptians had them), and possible pieces of chariot cabs. By being able to make out details on some and very regular, geometric shapes on others, it seems safe to conclude that the corals have grown over man-made objects. Think on it; when do you recall ever seeing a coral reef that had straight lines, right angles, and circular formations? Right. Me neither.

So we have wheels, regular geometric shapes, and identifiable skeletal pieces, along with a huge jumble of coral that hasn’t grown like coral anywhere else in the world. Add it all together, and you have something that looks like the remains of an Egyptian army that got caught without its floaties on.

Let me stress once more, Dr. Moller is very conservative in his assessments and makes no absolute claim that he has definitely found Pharaoh’s army – or anything else discussed so far. He states his theories and presents his evidence. He does the research and analysis, steps back, and (figuratively speaking) says, “Well, it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck. Do you think…?”

Intrigued? The book is available on Amazon. I’d also recommend getting the two DVDs that Amazon will suggest you buy along with it. I got them and, I’m glad I did. The book is 400+ pages with tons of documentation, but VERY readable.

The Exodus Case – Moses in Egypt

“The Exodus Case” by Dr. Lennart Moller – Book Review, Part Four of Seven

“Thus says the Lord God of Israel: ‘Let My people go…’” Exodus 5:1

In my first installment of this book review, I wrote about how Bible History and world history don’t seem to intersect. In this third part of my review I want to overview Dr. Moller’s theory on Moses’ presence in the Egyptian record. As in the previous installment, I’ll give the high points

Moses was adopted by Pharaoh’s daughter, who was childless. The question becomes whether there is a Pharaoh during the time of Moses who had but one daughter who was childless and adopted a son.

Thutmosis I/Amenhotep fits that description. He had a daughter, Nefure/Hatshepsut (depending upon their age and changing status within government and religion, different names were adopted). There are statues of Nefure holding a baby boy. The inscriptions name him as Senmut. The child of the sculpture wears a royal ornament, indicating his status as heir to the throne. Senmut is translated as “mother’s brother.”

That may seem an odd name for son…unless the son was adopted. Again, I’ll leave the details for you to cover in the book, but essentially royal succession was heavily tied to religion and the inherited deity of each Pharaoh. In order for an adopted son to be legitimately of the line of a Pharoah with an only daughter, his relationship to the gods had to be direct. Senmut was given the status of being the son of a god. His mother by way of her father was also a daughter of the god, thus making them, theologically speaking, siblings.

In order to legitimize Senmut for the throne, they had to start the “propaganda” very early to ensure he was accepted when he ascended the throne.

Moses was adopted and in line for the throne as the son of Pharaoh’s daughter. His scenario was exactly that of Senmut. The parallel continues. According to the Roman historian, Josephus, Moses was a general of the army, highly educated at court, and extremely successful. The royal court began first to envy, then fear him. They knew he was adopted and not Egyptian by blood.

Recall, then, Moses murdered an Egyptian slave master, was found out, and had to run off. He had given his enemies at court a reason to want him killed. Normally, one might think that a great general would get a wrist slap. Think of Patton in WWII when he abused a couple soldiers. Moses knew they would label him a traitor and use this excuse to kill him.

Guess what happened in Senmut’s case? That’s right; he was disinherited. There is no record of what he might have done, but records show he was suddenly stripped of his privileged status and disappeared under mysterious circumstances. And what do Egyptian’s do when a government official falls out of favor? They deface or destroy all statues and monuments for that person. Almost every statue of Senmut has had its nose broken off. That was a way to symbolically kill someone by removing their ability to breathe or taking away their spirit.

Here are other facts known of Senmut that parallel Moses: he was of humble birth, not royal lineage. At the time of his disappearance, Senmut was effectively ruler of Egypt (Moses was co-ruler when he escaped). Senmut’s shrine did not have the customary funerary feast scenes, but instead depicts him being embraced by the crocodile god (Moses was taken from the crocodile-infested Nile River). There is a surviving statue of Senmut. It shows him having an “aquiline” nose, which is not an Egyptian feature but a Caucasian/Jewish one.

Altogether, Dr. Moller cites 35 qualities shared by both Moses and Senmut. His discussion includes details of the Egyptian religions and its part in the royal line, the meaning of names and why Egyptian rulers were assigned different names in their lifetime. Statistically, such parallels would be unlikely in two separate individuals, making the theory that Moses and Senmut are the same man very compelling.

Intrigued? The book is available on Amazon. I’d also recommend getting the two DVDs that Amazon will suggest you buy along with it. I got them and, I’m glad I did. The book is 400+ pages with tons of documentation, but VERY readable.

The Exodus Case – Book Review, Part One of Seven

First, let me get into a little background before discussing the importance of this book. I was raised a Christian. I learned my bible history in a Christian grade school. I learned world history in history classes all the way through my master’s degree. I rarely saw much overlap. And part of that is because the history of the bible, at its youngest, is 2000 years old.

So I grew up and have lived most of my life with this divide in my head: there’s biblical history and there’s world history. Apart from historical cities and sites in the middle east, there’s a big disconnect. People are more and more seeing the bible as a curious collection of allegories and not legitimate history. But more and more science is pushing that pendulum back the other way.

I studied geology in college and was pretty good at it. I was very disappointed that the geologic layers didn’t reflect a world-wide flood. Geologists claimed that those layers reflected millions of years in their formation. That always felt a bit off to me but I wasn’t sure why.

How did all of those fossils get there? It’s a very rich testimony to the abundance of life in the distant past. But do we really believe all of those millions of animals died and just laid there, waiting to be covered by sediment? Ever see an A&E special on how long it takes scavengers to devour a dead animal, like a hippo? That carcass was COMPLETELY GONE within weeks, let alone before the rainy season flooded the area and covered that animal intact.

How did those animals get buried? Very fast! Like a flood. A huge world-wide deluge! Water came fast for 40 days and nights. From the time God shut the door on the ark to the day He said it was OK to come out was over a year. The entire world, covered by water, and the whole thing drained into a new configuration in that time. That’s serious water flow. It all happened in stages, which explains the layers too. And a lot of the world’s topography. For example the badlands look a lot like the area around Mt. St. Helens after it blew – just much bigger. Very fast erosion.

There are signs in this world that show us biblical history and world history are one in the same.

Enter Dr. Lennert Moller of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. He leads the research in their Research Laboratory of Analytical Toxicology. He’s the author of The Exodus Case. From the back flap of the cover:

“His research focuses on drug development…environmental medicine, and methods to measure DNA damage and oxidative stress…Research projects cover from mechanistic studies of nano-particles to clinical studies on how food and medical treatment can affect our health.

(He) earlier studied marine biology, limnology, and chemistry at the universities of Stockholm and Uppsala. His interests involve photography, minerals, scuba diving, and archeology, which together with international scientific lecturing and collaborations, have brought him to more than 60 different countries….He has been editor and author of several books in popular science and theology…in seven different languages.”

He’s smart.

You don’t accomplish what he has without good, solid scientific methods that yield accurate results. People around the world don’t buy your books and listen to your lectures unless you deliver what your resume’ says you should.

I found him while doing an internet search on the discovery of Pharaoh’s army (the Exodus guy) at the bottom of the Red Sea. I’d heard of it and wanted to get some solid information. I took a look at Moller, one of several names that popped up.

Guess what? He dove on the site and found them! Coral formations that grew around the chariots, people and animals. You can discern human and animal skeletons as well as chariot pieces. He’s got pictures in the book! And remember, he’s a doc, so he knows anatomy when he sees it.

Moller applied his considerable skills in scientific inquiry and a broad knowledge of different fields of science to a theory. Proposed – The book of Exodus is a literal account of a period in history.

Not allegory, not legend, not an amalgamation of tales borrowed from other cultures. The real deal with some good old Old Testament smiting, miracles, and desert wanderings. If events of the magnitude of Exodus really happened, there should be some evidence of it somewhere. You just need to apply good old scientific methods to lead you to the answer.

So, either he finds the goods and verifies the biblical account or he doesn’t or he finds contradictory evidence that disproves Exodus. When you think about it, that’s a pretty brave thing to do. A Christian lays his faith on the line and does a serious search, willing to let the chips fall where they may. Scary, say I. Because what if he’s wrong? Then what do you do with your beliefs? He took a leap of faith that the skills and intelligence God gave him will bear fruit, that he will find a connection between the bible and the world history as it lays before us.

And by the way, Pharaoh’s army? Not in the Red Sea. It’s in another body of water nearby. But we’ll save that for a coming installation of this book review.

Intrigued? The book is available on Amazon. I’d also recommend getting the two DVDs that Amazon will suggest you buy along with it. I got them and, I’m glad I did. The book is 400+ pages with tons of documentation, but VERY readable.

Maybe not sold yet? Well, I’m going to be giving you an overview of several of the most impressive sections in the next few posts, so stay tuned!