The Exodus Case – Pharaoh’s Army

“The Exodus Case” by Dr. Lennart Moller – Book Review, Part Six of Seven

“28 Then the waters returned and covered the chariots, the horsemen, and all the army of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them. Not so much as one of them remained… 30 So the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore.” Exodus 14, selected verses.

I had heard that evidence of chariot wheels had been found on a land bridge in the Middle East, possibly being the remains of Pharaoh’s army from Exodus. Not wanting to go off half-cocked, I did an internet search. That search is how I found Dr. Lennart Moller and his book, The Exodus Case.

He has not disappointed with his thorough, scientific method. For what it’s worth, I have two college degrees and I know a little about scholarly research and writing. Dr. Moller reads to me like the real deal, and he has a very serious pedigree as a scientist. See the first part of this series, “The Exodus Case – Part One.”

First, coral doesn’t just start growing. It must attach to something. That’s why people clean large ships out and sink them to start a reef growing. Coral reefs don’t start out of nowhere; they need something to attach to. Hence the ships. In the Gulf of Aqaba, Dr. Moller notes that it has coral reefs like most other bodies of water. But there is one area where there is coral, and it has not formed into a reef. He makes the observation that, on the land bridge off the Nuweiba Peninsula, coral is scattered about like someone tossed out a bunch of garbage. It lies here and there with no discernable pattern. A closer examination reveals what may have happened.

From Dr. Moller: “If skeletal parts lie open and accessible…then corals settle and begin to grow. This can make it very difficult to identify…skeletal parts. There is a large quantity of possible…parts at the place of the crossing, but they are piled up together…which makes the precise identification of individual…parts almost impossible. But there are also several examples of skeletal parts which can be identified.”

On page 248 he has pictures of a piece of coral shaped like a human femur lying next to an actual femur. They are identical. He has other pictures where he can discern human skulls, ribs, spines, and more. One picture on page 251 happens to have captured a fish next to “coral-ized” skeletons to provide scale (no pun intended). He estimates these remains to show no less than 3 individuals (remember, he’s an MD). There are many such identifiable corals on the land bridge. And that isn’t all.

There are identifiable skeletal parts of cows or oxen, which Pharaoh’s army would have used to both transport and be food. There are also parts that can be identified as pieces of horse skeletons.

So we have coral that has apparently grown over parts of skeletons and taken on their shape, which allows them to be identified. We have beasts of burden, which an army would require to supply and feed themselves. We have the horses to pull Pharaoh’s chariots. Oh, yeah! That reminds me.

He found coral in the shapes of chariot wheels. How does he decide that they are shaped as such? Well, on several, not all, but on enough coral shapes you can actually count the spokes. Because technology does improve over time and designs change, Dr. Moller can trace those wheels back to Egyptian chariot wheel designs. There are a variety; 4, 6, and 8 spokes. Why the diversity in one army? Because they wouldn’t just trash a perfectly good chariot because of the new number of spokes. Plus, they would take the chariots of those they defeated in war, adding them to the Egyptian “fleet.” These assertions are evident in Egyptian ruins.

Dr. Moller’s extensive research on chariot wheel design shows that the designs found on the land bridge off the Nuweiba Peninsula match the designs in use by Egypt and its conquests at the time of the Exodus.

One can also make out shapes resembling axles, hub caps (yes, Egyptians had them), and possible pieces of chariot cabs. By being able to make out details on some and very regular, geometric shapes on others, it seems safe to conclude that the corals have grown over man-made objects. Think on it; when do you recall ever seeing a coral reef that had straight lines, right angles, and circular formations? Right. Me neither.

So we have wheels, regular geometric shapes, and identifiable skeletal pieces, along with a huge jumble of coral that hasn’t grown like coral anywhere else in the world. Add it all together, and you have something that looks like the remains of an Egyptian army that got caught without its floaties on.

Let me stress once more, Dr. Moller is very conservative in his assessments and makes no absolute claim that he has definitely found Pharaoh’s army – or anything else discussed so far. He states his theories and presents his evidence. He does the research and analysis, steps back, and (figuratively speaking) says, “Well, it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck. Do you think…?”

Intrigued? The book is available on Amazon. I’d also recommend getting the two DVDs that Amazon will suggest you buy along with it. I got them and, I’m glad I did. The book is 400+ pages with tons of documentation, but VERY readable.

The Exodus Case – Crossing the Red Sea

“The Exodus Case” by Dr. Lennart Moller – Book Review, Part Five of Seven

“But lift up your rod, and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it. And the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.” Exodus 14:16

Now for The Exodus itself. Dr. Moller goes through a very good discussion of where the Israelites had settled just outside of Egypt in Goshen and why. He also gives an estimate of how many Israelites there were at the time of the Exodus. He arrived at a figure of about 2,000,000 people and cautions that this is a conservative number, based on biblical statements and expected demographics of such a population. Other studies have come up with a number as high as 6,000,000. Throughout his book, Dr. Moeller consistently displays such conservatism to avoid overstating his theories.

So, after the final plague sent by God – the death of all firstborn in Egypt – you have approximately 2,000,000 people leaving Egypt and heading across the wilderness to a body of water that they will cross without getting wet. There are several routes they could have taken to get to any of the proposed sites of the Red Sea crossing. But there is only one place around the Sinai Peninsula that will allow for 2,000,000 people to stage themselves for such a mass crossing and have another such site on the opposite side for them to regroup. There is only one place which requires a route with the landscape Exodus describes.

By the way, let’s drop the name “Red Sea.” The name in Hebrew is Yam Suph, and, after a few thousand years, no one quite knows what that place name would translate into. Dr. Moller includes a discussion of that problem. For now, let’s forge ahead with where Dr. Moller theorizes to be the location of that famous crossing.

From Dr. Moller: “Wadi Watir is the valley between the mountains going…down to the Nuweiba peninsula…(it) is very flat with no obstacles and is surrounded by high mountain ridges.”

“Now the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 “Speak to the children of Israel, that they turn and camp before Pi Hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baal Zephon; you shall camp before it by the sea. 3 For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, ‘They are bewildered by the land; the wilderness has closed them in.’” Exodus 14:1-3

The mountains enclosing the Wadi Watir would have closed in on the Israelites, trapping them on the Nuweiba Peninsula, just as described in Exodus. Nuweiba is large enough to easily accommodate a population of 2,000,000 people and their livestock. It is located on the Gulf of Aqaba on the east side of the Sinai Peninsula facing Saudi Arabia.

The ancient historian Josephus, drawing on primary sources no longer available to us, also notes how “The encampment was surrounded on two sides by mountains which extended right out to the sea and could not be passed.”

The Nuweiba Peninsula is also a prime site for the crossing, because it’s shore is the only spot with a shallow enough grade that people could walk down to the bottom. Opposite, there is another large, flat area to accommodate a large population to regroup. In between? A land bridge that drops off on either side into the deep.

From The Exodus Case: “ The sedimentation rate is very low in the Gulf of Aqaba, approximately 5cm/1000 years. But…the road that crosses the gulf is exposed to strong tidal currents, which results in an even lower rate. On the seabed there is no organic layer but it has a gravel character…This means that if the water is removed and the gravel is dried, there is solid ground to walk on.”

Unlike many scientists, Dr. Moller did not try to explain the miracle of the waters parting by a natural phenomenon. As stated in the first installment of this book review, he writes to test his theory that Exodus is an accurate account of real events. He is willing to accept a miracle when the Bible says God performed one. Especially when he is finding data to support most every other detail of Exodus.

Remember my installment on Sodom and Gomorrah: He found balls of pure sulphur (which does not occur naturally) that had burned into stone on a site that was burnt to a crisp and covered with ash. He has apparent evidence of a miracle, if not the evidence of how God did it. In the same way, he brings us apparent evidence of the Yam Suph crossing, if not of how God did it.

Once again, this is a very high level review of Dr. Moller’s study. Along with his process to arrive at the Nuweiba Peninsula, he has detailed discussions of the plagues that set it all in motion, pros and cons of alternate routes, and even time lines of how long it took the Israelites to make the trip as well as how long it would take Pharaoah’s army to catch up. He devotes several paragraphs to the Yam Suph/Red Sea translation as well.

Intrigued? The book is available on Amazon. I’d also recommend getting the two DVDs that Amazon will suggest you buy along with it. I got them and, I’m glad I did. The book is 400+ pages with tons of documentation, but VERY readable.