Mt. Sinai – Summary

Split RockI’ve related a number of characteristics of Jebel Musa/Moses’ Mountain in Saudi Arabia. Let’s review everything we have:

  • There is the 6 meter rock with a massive spilt down the middle, matching the biblical description of the rock Moses struck for water to gush forth. Furthermore, there is heavy water erosion starting at that split, leading down to a huge dried riverbed. It is the highest point by far, sitting atop a hill and surrounded by plains.
  • Amalekite Altar

    Ancient altar ruins on a rise

    Those plains also provide a battle ground for the fight with the Amalekites as described in Exodus, including an overlooking hill upon which is an ancient altar. Recall that Moses kept his hands raised to God in supplication for victory. Moses built an altar to God in thanks for that victory.

  • There is Jebel Musa itself. That is the name the locals have used for it since before recorded history. Everyone there simply knows that it is where Moses received the Ten Commandments. It is part of a range known as Jabal al Lawz. The top part of Jebel Musa is black, burnt to a crisp; Exodus tells us that God came down onto the mountain in fire and smoke.Mt Sinai Burnt Summit
  • 1 Kings 19 describes how Elijah was directed to Mt. Sinai and spent time there in a cave where God visited Him. There is such a cave in Jebel Musa.
  • Stone CirclesThere are many large stone circles that likely served as anchors for a tent. Similar stone circles have been found in Israel.
  • A broken Egyptian-style millstone was found at one the those circles. It would make sense no others were found. People on the move would not leave such a valuable piece of equipment behind!
  • Keep OutEgyptian-styled “Keep Out” signs are found at regular intervals at the base of the mountain; an outline of a sandal with the laces laid out to the sides, meaning “Shoes off! Sacred ground!” This same design is found in ancient Egyptian sites.
  • There is an earthen altar just as described in Exodus arranged for a massive procession of sacrifices. Next to it are the fallen pieces of twelve marble pillars, also included in the Exodus account.
  • There is a large pile of broken stone slabs which appear to be the base of an altar. Images of the Egyptian cow god are carved in these stones…along with a Jewish Menorah. This would fit perfectly as an altar for the Golden Calf.
  • God commanded Moses, Aaron, and elders to come up and meet with God on the mountain; 74 in all. A plateau exists up on the mountain with just sufficient space to hold that many people comfortably. Also nearby is a cleft in the rock as described in Exodus. God placed Moses there as He passed by, because no man can see God’s glory and live.

One might dismiss any of these as coincidentally similar to places in Exodus and nothing more. Taken together, one might wonder how many coincidences it takes to make a connection?

Exodus CaseAs Dr. Moller concludes in his book The Exodus Case, if this was a case being tried in a court of law to determine whether these things are, in fact, what Exodus describes, what would you, the jury, rule?

I strongly recommend you find The Exodus Case at Amazon, which I where I ran into it. It is well written, goes into impressive depth in terms of historical and scientific analysis, and has an abundance if photographs. The paper and print are high quality, and the book is very well produced.

One final point; I don’t see this information as proving the truth of the Bible. I see it as agreeing with Biblical truth. However, as a Christian speaking to those how doubt, because they think science has disproven the Bible, this gives enough evidence to give one pause. This is information to start an open conversation with someone.

If you are not a Christian, I invite you to look into this further yourself to your own satisfaction. I tell you openly that there are detractors of these archeological finds in general and Dr. Moller in particular. Before anything else, make sure you thoroughly understand what Dr. Moller presents. Only then can you reasonable expect to judge whether the criticisms are valid.

And the real question remains; what are the odds that these are all just coincidences?

Mt. Sinai – Other Identifying Features

Exodus CaseThen Moses went up, also Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, 10 and they saw the God of Israel. And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of sapphire stone, and it was like the very heavens in its clarity. 11 But on the nobles of the children of Israel He did not lay His hand. So they saw God, and they ate and drank.   Exodus 24:9-11

Moses was not the only person to spend time with God on Mt. Sinai. All told, there was a “summit meeting” between 74 select people, including Moses and Aaron, and God. There would have to have been an area sufficient to accommodate a large group on this very rugged mountain. Dr. Moller makes the point in The Exodus Case that one would hardly expect mere people to remain standing in the presence of Almighty God! Recall that Peter, James, and John prostrated themselves at the transfiguration of Christ. There needed to be enough flat area for worship, as well as the eating and drinking described in the text.

There is a plateau of about 400 square meters. For the purpose of visualizing this, let’s say it’s actually a square, 20 meters on a side; about 22 yards. In football terms, that’s a bit over two first downs squared. Each man gets about 6.5 square yards; just under 20 x 20 feet. Not luxurious, but not cramped. It would suit the space needed to comfortably accommodate 74 adults for a meeting and meal. The arrow in the picture below points to the plateau, a white, fairly circular area. Beyond that and to the left you can see the plain where Israel would have camped. This picture was taken from the peak of Jebel Musa; note the blackened rock in the right foreground.Plateau

There’s one more feature of this area to briefly note…

18And he (Moses) said, “Please, show me Your glory.”  19 Then He said, “I will make all My goodness pass before you, and I will proclaim the name of the Lord before you. I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.” 20 But He said, “You cannot see My face; for no man shall see Me, and live.” 21 And the Lord said, “Here is a place by Me, and you shall stand on the rock. 22 So it shall be, while My glory passes by, that I will put you in the cleft of the rock, and will cover you with My hand while I pass by. 23 Then I will take away My hand, and you shall see My back; but My face shall not be seen.”    Exodus 33:18-23

If Jebel Musa (Moses’ Mountain) in Saudi Arabia is indeed Mt. Sinai, there should be a distinct cleft in the rocks where God placed Moses as described in the text. There is exactly such a formation at the side of the plateau described above.

Cleft in the Rock

The cleft rock where Moses might have stood as God past by

NEXT – A summary of the finds at Jebel Musa/Moses’ Mountain in Saudi Arabia.

Mt. Sinai – The Golden Calf

Exodus CaseNow when the people saw that Moses delayed coming down from the mountain, the people gathered together to Aaron, and said to him, “Come, make us [a]gods that shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has become of him.”

And Aaron said to them, “Break off the golden earrings which are in the ears of your wives, your sons, and your daughters, and bring them to me.”…And he received the gold from their hand, and he fashioned it with an engraving tool, and made a molded calf.

Then they said, “This is your god, O Israel, that brought you out of the land of Egypt!”

So when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it.   Exodus 32, Selected Verses

What short memories they had! The plagues that struck all of Egypt but not them, the pillar of fire by day and of smoke by night, the parted sea, destruction of the Egyptian army, manna every morning, and the smoke, thunder, and lightning atop Sinai right there!

Hathor Cow Goddess

Hathor – human & bovine editions

But Moses took longer than they expected so it was time to move on to another god. Why a calf? After generations in Egypt, they were very familiar with their practice of worshipping cattle, so they went back to what they had known all their lives; Hathor, the Egyptian cow goddess.

God told Moses what was going on back at camp and sent him down. Before Moses got all the way down he could see the golden calf in the distance and hear the sounds of celebration. His first considered act was to break the two stone tablet of the Ten Commandments. He then went completely nuts, burned the thing down to ashes, spread the ashes in the water, and made everyone drink it.

Golden CalfWe shouldn’t expect to make an archeological find of a golden calf at the base of Jebel Musa in Saudi Arabia, but Moses does record in Exodus that Aaron made an alter to put it on. There is a large pile of broke slabs of rock in view of the descending route from the top of the mountain. Intact, they would have formed the base of a

Golden Calf Altar Base

Broken altar base

very large alter that could be seen a ways off.  for scale, note the fence around it that the Saudis erected to people off it. The size means it would have been a big figure, taking lots of gold. But remember that you had roughly 2 million Jewish slaves taking all the gold from their former slaveholders, so there was plenty on hand.

Impressive evidence on this find are the carvings that can be seen on those stones. They are of Egyptian style cattle and of people holding them up in worship, mirroring ancient Egyptian carvings.

Golden Calf Base Calf Petroglyphs

Several carvings seen on the base pieces

Another interesting piece of the carving is several depictions of a person or people worshiping the cow by seemingly supporting it from below.Golden Calf held by person

Compare that to a clear rendition of a typical ancient Egyptian carving of similar activities.

Golden Calf Egyptian Model

Drawn reproduction of ancient Egyptian carving

But there’s one last image that can be seen on those stone which have many carvings like those shown above.  Yes, there are Egyptian-style depictions of the cow goddess, Hathor.  But who’s to say that it was necessarily the Israelites who did all of this?  Well, what are the odds that you’d find a menorah carved into those same stones?

Golden Calf Base Menorah

Yup…right there

So far we seem to have a lot of traits in and around the site of Jebel Musa in Saudi Arabia that match the Biblical Mt. Sinai.  There are more!

NEXT – A summit meeting with God.

 

 

Mt. Sinai – The Altar and 12 Marble Pillars

Exodus Case(God said) “An altar of earth you shall make for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen. In every place where I [d]record My name I will come to you, and I will bless you. 25 And if you make Me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of hewn stone; for if you use your tool on it, you have profaned it. 26 Nor shall you go up by steps to My altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed on it.”   Exodus 20:24-26

So far we’ve learned of evidence of a campsite and an Egyptian style mill stone at the foot of Jebel Musa/Moses’ Mountain in Saudi Arabia. But that could be the encampment of any very large group. There is more, though, that points to this being where the Children of Israel camped at the foot of Mt. Sinai.

God commanded them to construct an altar for burnt offerings in recognition of their deliverance. There would have been a lot of animals sacrificed, so it would have to have been built with that in mind. It was to be made of earth and uncut stone. As you might have guessed, I’m leading up to the discovery of just such a structure at Jebel Musa.

In the artist’s sketch below you can see two corridors to the right that lead up to the alter area in yellow.  The corridor on the right has an entrance at the end leading directly in.  The corridor on the left has a less visible entrance on the left, also at the far end. This arrangement is a practical solution to handling a long procession of animals being led toward the alter to be sacrificed. It could be that one side is for cattle and the other for sheep and goats or perhaps all animal were brought in along one path and their handlers exited through the other path. Either way, it represents an efficient “traffic pattern” to deal with a lot of animals to be sacrificed. Also notice the 12 white pillars, which we’ll get to further on.Sacrificial Altar Artists Sketch

The yellow area still has a mix of sand and gravel, the earthen alter called for in the text. This would help deal with the volume of blood to be spilled. Indeed, there is a high degree of biological matter still detectable within this particular section.

The whole arrangement was built without the elevation normally associated with an altar. Essentially, it was a concession to modesty as related in verse 26 above.  This is before the Levites were appointed as priests and made to wear special ceremonial robes.

Below are several photos of the site as it lies today taken from different angles and distances.

Sacrificial Altar Four Shot

Not the white marble pillar sections in the upper right photo, approximately middle left in the photo.

And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord. And he rose early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes of Israel. Then he sent young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the LordAnd Moses took half the blood and put it in basins, and half the blood he sprinkled on the altar… And Moses took the blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, “This is the blood of the covenant which the Lord has made with you according to all these words.”    Exodus 24:4-6 & 8

Now let’s talk about those pillars. There are twelve marble pillars, each built in section. You can see the sections lying on the ground in the upper right photo. The theory behind those being there was for Moses to symbolically sprinkle sacrificial blood on the twelve tribes of Israel. Remember that the conservative estimate is over 2 million people. It was hardly likely that Moses could actually sprinkle blood on every individual person in the population, but he could sprinkle it on those pillars.

Pillar Section at Altar

One of the pillar sections near the altar

Pillar Foundations at Altar

Some of the marbles slabs also found at the altar.  They may have served as bases for the pillars.

You might be wondering, as I did, just where they got marble in this wilderness. As it turns out, there is a sizeable vein of marble in Jebel Musa. Imperfect pillar sections still lie there to this day.

Pillar at Quarry

A flawed pillar section still sits at the marble quarry.

The entire area around Jebel Musa/Mt. Sinai starts looking more and more to be just what Moses described to us in Exodus with each archeological find.  This mountain and its entire range known to the locals as “Jebel Musa” or Moses’ Mountain looks more and more like God’s own Mt. Sinai.

NEXT – The Golden Calf was destroyed by Moses, so we can’t expect to find that, but…

(All images reproduced from The Exodus Case)

Mt. Sinai – Signs of Life

Exodus CaseIn the third month after the children of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on the same day, they came to the Wilderness of Sinai. For they had departed from Rephidim, had come to the Wilderness of Sinai, and camped in the wilderness. So Israel camped there before the mountain.    Exodus 19:1-2

You can most always tell when people have been somewhere. They leave signs large and small of their passing and even habitation wherever they go. If the Children of Israel indeed followed a path from Egypt to Jebel Musa in Saudi Arabia, you’d expect to find some sort of signs. Admittedly we are a few thousand years later, but something might still be found.

Stone CirclesIn his book The Exodus Case, Dr. Lennart Mueller writes about stone circles that are found along that path and even in today’s Israel. A great many are found around the west side of Jebel Musa/Mt.Sinai. These were certainly placed there by people. Natural forces do not tend to simply drop or move large stones into circles like these. The question is to the reason people would have made so many circles.

They likely provided the anchor for tents. The Israelites no doubt had a lot of material they could use for tents after having plundered the Egyptians before they left. One center support to raise the tent and a circle of stones to anchor the edges to the ground is a very simple, easy design.Tent Illustration

Recall also that, although they were on the move after leaving Egypt, but things slowed down after the Egyptian army was crushed by the waters of Yam Suph. It was a total of three months after leaving Egypt before reaching the Sinai wilderness. They weren’t quite sedentary, but they weren’t walking every single day either.

MillstoneAnother discovery among the stone circles were pieces of an Egyptian-style millstone. They would have used it for milling their grain while in Egypt and possibly the manna after that began. Admittedly, only pieces of one has been found in the entire area, but this isn’t something someone would have left behind. I wouldn’t expect to find thousands of them all over. This was a valuable tool and not something to leave behind.

Leave the tent stones; take the mill stones.

So we have a lot of evidence that a lot of people had encamped here sometime in the distant past. It could have been the Children of Israel or someone else. Anyone could have used this tent design or have a small millstone. But are there any other identifiers around this Jebel Musa, Moses’ Mountain as the current locals call it?

Next up – Not everyone needs an alter and twelve marble pillars!

All images are reproduced from The Exodus Case.  I encourage you to find it on Amazon!

Mt. Sinai – The Cave

Exodus CaseThen as he (Elijah) lay and slept under a broom tree, suddenly an angel touched him, and said to him, “Arise and eat.” Then he looked, and there by his head was a cake baked on coals, and a jar of water. So he ate and drank, and lay down again. And the angel of the Lord came back the second time, and touched him, and said, “Arise and eat, because the journey is too great for you.” So he arose, and ate and drank; and he went in the strength of that food forty days and forty nights as far as Horeb, the mountain of God.

And there he went into a cave, and spent the night in that place; and behold, the word of the Lord came to him, and He said to him, “What are you doing here, Elijah?”…11 Then He said, “Go out, and stand on the mountain before the Lord.” And behold, the Lord passed by, and a great and strong wind tore into the mountains and broke the rocks in pieces before the Lord, but the Lord was not in the wind; and after the wind an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake; 12 and after the earthquake a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire; and after the fire a still small voice.   1 Kings 19:5-9 & 11-12

Let’s leave Exodus behind briefly to look at another marker of Mt. Horeb/Mt.Sinai. 1 Kings tells us the Elijah fled for his life from Queen Jezebel and ended up on Mt. Horeb in a cave where God spoke to him. Have explorers found such a cave at Jebel Musa in Saudi Arabia?

They have!

The cave is visible from a distance, as you can see below.  Also notice that it is not near the peak, although a ridge is seen above.  None of the rock is burned.The Cave Cover ShotGetting closer you can see it’s a good-sized opening.  Further inside you can see it’s floor is fairly smooth for a natural cave.The Cave Front DoorThe Cave FoyerTurning back to the view outside, you can see the now dry river bed leading from the split rock we saw a few articles ago.  The plain beyond is the plain that could accommodate the Israelites as well as the battle site for the Amalekite conflict.The Cave ViewWhile not at the peak, the elevation is plain when you consider the plain in the distance could accommodate a population of 2million people and the lower peak center left.  Once you understand the size of that plain, you can begin to appreciate the size of the river bed.  Closer to the camera, it’s possible to get a feel for the size of the rocks there and, thus, the size of the entrance.

And so this is yet another match between Jebel Musa and the Mt. Sinai of the Bible.  But stay with me as we continue to find more similarities!

All photos reproduced from The Exodus Case.

The Exodus – Mt. Sinai

Then it came to pass on the third day, in the morning, that there were thunderings and lightnings, and a thick cloud on the mountain; and the sound of the trumpet was very loud, so that all the people who were in the camp trembled. 17 And Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. 18 Now Mount Sinai was completely in smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire. Its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and [c]the whole mountain quaked greatly.   Exodus 19:16-18

The Children of Israel settled in to their encampment after their battle with Amalek. Mt. Sinai loomed in front of them, and Moses passed on God’s announcement to them of His impending arrival. He made a grand entrance; thunder and lightning, smoke and earthquakes.

Exodus CaseDr. Lennart Moller, author of The Exodus Case, and others have visited the site of what they believe is the real Mt. Sinai and not the traditional site on the Sinai Peninsula. What leads them all to believe that this mountain and not the other is the true Mt. Sinai?

First is local tradition; the natives refer to it as Jebel Musa, the Mountain of Moses. Their oral histories tell them that this is where Moses and the Israelites met God. This is just a matter of fact to them.

Search for Real Mt SinaiSecond is the appearance of the mountain. The top of it is burnt to crisp. Larry Williams and Bob Comuke mounted their two-man expedition to visit Jebel Musa themselves. They documented their expedition in their video, The Search for the Real Mt. Sinai. They climbed to the top, well into this burnt area. They wondered if any of this blackened mountaintop might have anything to do with volcanic activity. The took a few stones and broke them to show the interior. It was plain that these were not pieces of lava, but regular stone; the outside was burnt, but inside was normal rock. Everything looked as if it had been blasted with flamethrowers.

But this is desert. There is very little plant life. There is nothing to burn. The question becomes how this mountain top got so thoroughly scorched. The answer is, of course, our passage from Exodus 19 above.Mt Sinai Burnt Summit

Only Moses was allowed to so much as approach the mountain, let alone climb it.

 You shall set bounds for the people all around, saying, ‘Take heed to yourselves that you do not go up to the mountain or touch its base. Whoever touches the mountain shall surely be put to death. 13 Not a hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned or shot with an arrow; whether man or beast, he shall not live.   Exodus 19:12-13

Keep OutLarry and Bob discovered what appear to be ancient “Keep Out” signs at regular intervals at the base of the mountain; it is the outline of a sandal with the straps laid out to either side- essentially untied. Amazingly, this is a symbol that had been used in ancient Egypt to indicate a holy site; no shoes allowed!

There is much more to identify Jebel Musa as the real Mt. Sinai. I invite you to continue with me in this series to learn the all of the evidence that matches the Biblical descriptions and activities of Mt. Sinai.

The Exodus Case – Mt. Sinai

“The Exodus Case” by Dr. Lennart Moller – Book Review, Part Seven of Seven

“16 Now the glory of the Lord rested on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. And on the seventh day He called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud. 17 The sight of the glory of the Lord was like a consuming fire on the top of the mountain in the eyes of the children of Israel.” Exodus 24:16-17

There is a traditional Mt. Sinai on the Sinai Peninsula. Because of this tradition, many people believe it is truly God’s Mountain. However, it does not match the description of His mountain as told in Exodus.

Again, Dr. Moller relies on his theory that Exodus is literally true in order to find where it leads us. We’ve already seen that it appears that the Red Sea crossing was not at the Red Sea proper, but across the Gulf of Aqaba. That places Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia, which agrees with biblical references to it being in Arabia (St. Paul). Josephus also places Mt. Sinai in Arabia.

The question becomes whether there is a mountain and surrounding area that precisely match the description in Exodus. Dr. Moller points to such a location, named Jabal Al Lawz. It is a mountain ridge in Saudi Arabia, which has a number of distinct characteristics as well as ruins, making it worth serious consideration as the true Mt. Sinai. Following are points which I will try to describe as briefly as I can.

The Israelites were attacked by the Amalekites as they approached Mt. Sinai. The battle was on a broad plain near the mountain. You might recall the story, because Moses had to keep his arms raised to God for them to prevail. As he tires, Aaron and Hur help hold his arms up. Such a plain is west of Jabal Al Lawz, as well as a rise for Moses to oversee the battle.

After the battle, Moses erects an altar to God, commemorating the victory. An ancient altar exists on the site.

In the same place, the Israelites complained to Moses about their thirst. God commands Moses to strike a large rock, which splits, and water pours forth. You might recall from an earlier post, the low-end estimate as to the size of their population is 2 million plus livestock. The flow of water had to be much more than a trickle or gurgle. At Jabal Al Lawz there is a 6 meter high rock, which is split through the middle, top to bottom. You can easily see right through that split. At its base are stones heavily eroded by water. Leading out from there are large wadis, which are dried up ponds or lakes. The area of the wadis appear large enough to have supplied such a population. The erosion starts at the rock.  There is no rise of land above it.  It is the tallest thing in the immediate area.

Mt. Sinai also appears in another biblical story. When Elijah does battle with the priests of Baal, God strikes with fire to ignite Elijah’s offering. Shortly after that, Elijah flees for his life and takes refuge in a cave on Mt. Sinai. There is such a cave that could be lived in at Jabal Al Lawz with a commanding view of the plain. You can also see the dried wadis from there.

The Israelites encamped around the east side of Mt. Sinai. Sure enough, on the east side of Jabal Al Lawz is evidence of an ancient encampment. The type of tents used then was supported by a center pole with a circle of rocks anchoring the base of the tent. Many such rock circles are found in this area, along with – wait for it – Egyptian style millstones for grinding grain.

God told Moses not to let anyone touch the mountain, lest they die. At regular intervals around the base of the mountain are found stones with a pictograph; the outline of a sandal with the laces laid out to the side. It was a common sign from Egypt that the place beyond was considered holy. Take off your sandals to enter, or Do Not Enter. It’s essentially a sign barrier telling everyone to Keep Out.

Josephus states that Mt. Sinai was the highest in the area. At 2200+ feet, Jabal Al Lawz towers over its neighbors.

There is a ruin of low walls in a configuration and height to possibly have been the altar God tells Moses to erect for a massive animal sacrifice. It was to be a low altar so that they wouldn’t have to climb steps to it, “…that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon.” In other words, so that no one could see up their tunics. Archeologists have said that they must be the ruins of the buildings. If so, where are the rest of the walls? If they crumbled, where are they? Other compelling characteristics of the site:
• The stones are all uncut, as specified by God
• It’s original height is estimated at about 1 meter, which would be about right.
• Archeologists have detected large amounts of “biological material” within the ruin. People don’t slaughter animals indoors, but they do at an altar.

While Moses was on the mountain, the Israelites cast the Golden Calf and put it on an altar. Visible from a cleft in the mountain as one descends is the plain of the encampment and a large pile of natural rocks, which could have served as a base for an altar. Before you think that this is a reach just because they are easily seen on the descent, inscribed on these rocks are Egyptian styled images of cows. Egyptians held cows sacred. It follows that the Israelites would use what they knew.

The Bible also describes a plateau part way up where Moses gathered with 70 elders before going to the top to meet with God. Just such a plateau exists on Jabal Al Lawz with enough room to comfortably accommodate 70+ people.

The very top of the ridge is blackened, essentially burnt to a crisp. This is a region that’s mostly desert. There is no vegetation to catch fire, no fuel for such a thoroughly burnt area.  This is not an area of volcanic activity in any time period.  But…

“Now Mount Sinai was completely in smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire. Its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly.” Exodus 19:18

In addition, Dr. Moller notes that “The local population relate that even today Jabal Al Lawz (Mt. Horeb) is known by the inhabitants as “Jebel Musa,” which means ‘Moses’ Mount.’” Page 324.

These short paragraphs do no justice to the detail Dr. Moller presents in The Exodus Case. He is exceptionally careful to not make exclusive claims that he has definitely found the Red Sea crossing, Mt. Sinai, and more. He simply states his hypothesis that Exodus is literally true and proceeds to gather evidence to see where it leads. He invites readers to draw their own conclusions. He does this with 400+ pages of text and hundreds of color pictures.

Intrigued? The book is available on Amazon. I’d also recommend getting the two DVDs that Amazon will suggest you buy along with it. I got them and I’m glad I did. The book is 400+ pages with tons of documentation, but VERY readable.